Oil and Gas
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Lasertekh Company works with drilling contractors. Drilling contractors are service companies. They either implement a certain part of a project, or entire project on a ‘turnkey basis’ (for instance, Schlumberger Company). Some companies sell or lease drilling equipment to rig operators. In case of equipment lease, a service company will provide drilling equipment fleet including hard facing. Lasertekh cooperates with service companies (e.g., Baker Hughes) and with industrial companies manufacturing drilling tools. Of course, in case of a machining shop these will only include brand new tools. In case of a service company, Lasertekh will ensure tool restoration at the manufacturer’s plant.
There are 4 types of drilling
1. Turbine Drilling
Turbo drill rotates the drill bit much faster as compared to a conventional motor. As a result, less torque is compensated for by higher speed. This makes the hole smoother and helps increase the penetration rate of the drill bit.
2. Vertical Drilling
This is a vertical drilling technology. As a rule, bottom-hole assembly of a drilling stem is equipped with shoes for stabilization of the drill bit deflection.
3. Horizontal Drilling
This technology is characterized by the penetration to the oil deposit on the side by means of horizontal drilling. This improves productivity factor of the future well.
4. Directional Drilling
This technology uses rotary steerable system referred to as RSS. This system makes it possible for a drill stem to go in any direction. This is achieved by means of alternate activation of several extensible shoes.
Drilling Rig Description
When operating a drilling rig two individual driving mechanisms can be used:
Down hole electric motor that is also referred to as hydraulic downhole motor;
Rotary table that rotates the entire column of drilling pipes.
Down hole electric motors are widely used since that enables a greater torque of the drill bit.
Mud pump sucks chemical mud into the drilling tool.
Mudflow makes the rotary table rotate, and the latter transmits the rotary motion to the drill bit. Typical speed of the drill bit is 150.
Some mud returns from the descending well and goes through the screed that separates the mud from the clay material.
The system is close-loop circuit and any leak reduces performance of the tool.
Mud is also used for lubricating some of the equipment at the bottom of the drill pipe.
Description of Drill Motor
The figure below indicates a schematic image of a drilling motor with different component parts.
The motor can be used with a fixed or adjustable bent housing or with rotary steerable system (RSS).
These tools are used to alter the direction of the drill bit. Use of RSS enables real-time adjustment.
Lasertekh Company can offer a solution for the most of the component parts of bottom-hole drill stem, including drill bit, stabilizer, bent housing, guide bearings, stators, non-magnetic tools for telemetry / logging, heavy-duty drilling collars.
Drill Stem Stabilizer
Drill stem stabilizer is a component part of bottom-hole equipment that is used in bottom-hole assembly (BHA) of a drilling line. This component part is intended for mechanical stabilization of BHA in the well to avoid unintentional sidetracking, vibrations and to ensure appropriate quality of a well drilled
Typical wear of a stabilizer after several hundreds of hours of operation
In general, a drill bit is a tool intended for drilling cylindrical holes.
Types of drill bits
PDC bit: — Steel body bit. The bit is made completely of steel with machine processing followed by hard facing. Diamonds located on sintered tungsten carbide are welded and the bit is ground until necessary precise dimensions are achieved.
— Matrix bit (metal-impregnated). It is made of tungsten carbide impregnated with bendalloy. Diamonds attached to the sintered tungsten carbide are welded and the bit is ground until necessary precise dimensions are achieved.
Three-cone mill-tooth bit: each cone is machined and hard-faced using hardband coating with tungsten carbide.
Three-cone bit: — It consists of 3 cones. The cones are made completely of steel with machine processing and reinforced with hardband tungsten carbide inserts.
For use of wire: TS GG ⌀ 6mm
TP4000 or other powder mix can be used. Graphite plugs are used prior to hard facing in order to avoid entry of padding material to the holes for diamonds.
The main function of reamers with cylindrical cones is to cut the rock layers in order to increase well bore up to the necessary size during well drilling. The reamers may have the original size of a drill bit in cases when drill bit size reduces to its wear.
We offer hard-facing with Technolase® 40S with wavy hard-facing pattern
Hydraulic bottom-hole motor
Hydraulic bottom-hole motor that can also be referred to as a positive displacement motor (PDM) ensures extra torque for the drill bit. The operation of a bottom-hole motor relies on the rotor and stator principle. The mud goes between the rotor and stator. The pressure generated by the mud makes the rotor rotate. The rotor connected with the drill bit rotates the drill bit.
LaserCarb® Technolase® 40S
Bearing assembly: top and bottom guide bearing and flow deflection device;
Near bit stabilizer;
Stator, bent housing;
Drive shaft (bearing journal).
Note: As a rule, hard facing of the rotor uses high velocity oxygen fuel process.
Bearing assembly: bottom, top guide bearing and journal bearing. They ensure correct rotation of the drill bit. They take radial load during directional or horizontal drilling. Each assembly consists of a rotating and immovable part. Rotating bearing has its outer side hard-faced, while immovable part has its inner side hard-faced. To ensure perfect sitting, fine finishing is always required. The bearing assembly is lubricated by the mud. The journal bearing takes axial load of the motor.
Flow deflection device: Mudflow coming from the rotor/stator is divided into the mud that goes through the bearing assembly, and the mud that goes to the drill bit. Flow deflection device separates the flow of the mud. The lining is applied to the outer diameter which is machined later on.
Near bit stabilizer: it helps align the drill bit and drilling pipe in the center of the bore. Stator: Hard facing may apply to the outer surface of the tool. Bent housing: it is used for steering the bit during directional drilling.
Bearings: guide bearing
Guide bearing for bottom-hole motor
Lasertekh Company manufactures high-quality bearings using LaserCarb® technology.
Having this technology at its disposal, Lasertekh Company can apply high-quality coating to the internal and external surfaces of a guide bearing.
Hardness and impact strength of Spherotene® (balls of cast tungsten carbide manufactured by Technogenia Company) in combination with the unique properties of laser technology make it possible to get a uniform hard facing.
Fused eutectic tungsten carbide has a rigidity equal to 3000 HV ± 500, and during sintering it gives a coating of high density. Laser technology makes it possible to control the heat-affected zone of the base metal and ensure high quality adhesion to the base metal. To improve guide bearings for motors and increase drilling efficiency, the solution is precision, reproducibility and ability to apply a LaserCarb® coating with thickness from 0.020 inches to 0.125 inches.
Measuring-while-drilling (MWD) / Log-while-drilling (LWD)
Purpose of the tool:
Measuring-while-drilling (MWD): MWD tools usually pertain to measurement of vertical deflection of the well bore, as well as magnetic direction from up north. Essentially, an MWD operator measures well trajectory during its drilling. These tools are made of non-magnetic stainless steel.
Log-while-drilling (LWD): the difference between MWD and LWD is that during MWD you obtain data in real time, while LWD operates as a memory card. You can read data only once the tool has been withdrawn from the well. Initially, the LWD technology was developed as an addition to the earlier version of MWD for the purpose of complete or partial replacement of wire line logging.
Logging line: The technology is still in use. Logging line, as a rule, falls under a line technology that is used by the operators to lower the equipment and instruments to the well bore for operations inside it or for formation evaluation.
Wear: As a rule, these tools do not demonstrate intensive wear since they are located under the sensor. Usually, they are protected by a removable calibrator or several replaceable bands installed lengthwise the tool. In some cases, the heavy-duty drilling collars have hard facing themselves. Baker Hughes currently utilizes hard facing directly on to the heavy-duty drilling collars
Single 40S shaft for two TP 625 shafts.
Reduction of heat absorption;
Protection of a greater surface.
Rotary Steerable Systems
This technology is used in directional drilling. The system is typically programmed by an MWD engineer or a directional drilling process engineer who transmits commands using ground-based equipment (usually using pressure fluctuations in the mud column or options for rotating the drill string) to which the tool responds, and gradually adjusts the shoes in the right direction.
Instead of RSS, the tool can also use a bent housing or an adjustment ring. In this case drilling can be performed in one direction only unlike the use of RSS that enables drilling in any direction.
RSS. Bent housing:
Suitable for repair.
Hard facing with Inconel followed by 40S.
Tools with blades.
40S is applied on each blade. Hard facing pattern depends on the tool.